What is cancer?
Cancer is what is called a set of diseases related to an uncontrolled process of cell division. This lack of control is due to a set of mutations or alterations in the genes that participate in the control of cell division. Cancer is considered, therefore, a disease with a genetic basis.
Cancer in Spain
In Spain, cancer is one of the main causes of morbidity, with 228,482 cases estimated for the year 2017 and a forecast of 315,413 cases for the year 2035.
The most frequently diagnosed tumours in Spain in 2017 were those of colorectal, prostate, lung, breast, bladder and stomach.
It consists of the study of the variations, alterations, mutations and modifications of our genome that is related to cancer, with its development and with the possible diagnostic tests and personalized treatments that could be available.
The science of oncogenomics seeks to identify genes, mutations, expressions that are key to designing drugs against these targets, so treatment can be adjusted more and more to the type of cancer that affects a patient in a tailored way.
Thanks to advances in molecular biology and the genetic characterization of different types of cancer, oncology increasingly offers solutions tailored to each patient and the genetic characteristics of each tumour.
Cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease, which can be originated by a specific combination of mutations, making two tumours, although they come from the same type of tissue, are very different, and also respond differently to treatment. Prosigna® (PAM50) evaluates the expression of 50 key genes that allow to categorize more specifically tumour tissue, in intrinsic biological subtype as well as estimate the risk of recurrence at 10 years, based on two clinical studies (TransATAC and ABCSG-8) that between both include more than 2400 postmenopausal women with breast cancer.
Spanish Society for Medical oncology. Las cifras del cáncer en España 2018.